New Finding: Hip Fracture Risk Greatest in Childless
Women who do not have children are at increased risk
of postmenopausal hip fracture, US researchers say.
Although the team do not expect women to alter their
decision to have children based on their findings, lead
author Teresa Hillier (Kaiser Permanente
Northwest/Hawaii, Portland, Oregon) suggests that
nulliparous women should visit their physicians and find
out about preventative actions.
Hillier and colleagues examined the relationship
between childbirth and the risk of hip, spine, and wrist
fractures in 9704 postmenopausal women aged 65 years or
older over an average follow-up of 9.8 years.
Even after taking into account bone mineral density,
multivariate analysis showed that women who had never
given birth were 44% more likely to have experienced hip
fracture than parous women. Importantly, age, weight,
history of hip fracture, physical activity, or use of
calcium or estrogen supplements did not affect this
Interestingly, there was no significant difference in
the risk of spine or wrist fracture between the two
groups of women.
The team concludes that "childbearing reduces
hip fracture risk by means that may be independent of
hip bone mineral density."
Source: J Bone Miner Res 2003; 18: 893-899
Microwave Cooking -
20 Useful Tips for Arthritis Warriors
Microwave ovens can be a boon to people with
arthritis, osteoporosis or other bone and joint
disorders - no more bending down or lifting heavy pots
and pans. The food is better for you because it retains
more nutrients, and there's less washing up?you can
usually eat from the dish in which the food was heated.
If you're new to microwave cooking, it can seem a bit
of a mystery, but once you've mastered a few simple
techniques you'll be amazed at how easy and labor-saving
it is. Here are 20 tips for trouble-free microwave
leftovers. Cover with plastic wrap to avoid
splatters. Prick holes in wrap to stop
exploding. Typical heating time for one serving
of a portion of food is one minute, and let
stand a further 30 seconds.
||Allow extra time
for bigger meals. The more food you place in
a microwave oven the longer it takes to cook.
During thawing, cooking or reheating, stir the
food or move it around in the dish to help heat
all the food. (Food cooks on the outside edges
||Save on dishes to
be washed up. Food can often be cooked or
reheated in the dish you eat it from to save
time. The micro (small) waves which pass
through the food continue to cook it for a short
time after the beeper has sounded. This is why
you must always allow time for the food to stand
and complete the cooking process after the
microwave has switched off. A good rule of thumb
is to stand for 1/3 of the cooking time, for
example, if a baked potato takes 3 minutes to
cook, stand for 1 minute before eating.
microwaves don't mix. Avoid metal in the
microwave oven as the microwaves can't pass
through it. It could short circuit and damage
||Check if plastic
items are microwave proof. Make sure plastic
dishes are microwave proof, if not, they could
melt during cooking and ruin your food.
Most china/pottery/oven-proof glass dishes can
be used in a microwave oven. If you are unsure
check by placing a glass of cold water beside
the dish and heat on high for 1 minute. If the
water is hot and the dish is cold then it is
suitable to use.
||Cook in quantity,
and then reheat. A tray of roast vegetables,
for example, can be cooked ahead, frozen, and
then thawed and reheated as required.
||Egg safety tip.
Puncture egg yolks and whites before cooking to
||Cooking foods with
skins. Pierce skins of potatoes,
apples, hot dogs, and sausages to allow the
steam to escape.
||Liquid tip. Use
a deep bowl when cooking liquids or cereals to
prevent boiling over.
vegetables. Always place the stems of
vegetables, for example, cauliflower, broccoli,
facing the outside of the dish. The stems are
tougher than the flower, so this will ensure
even cooking because microwaves cook from the
outside of the dish, in toward the center.
Lightly prick the skin of chicken before
cooking. This prevents the loud popping noises.
If brown sugar becomes hard, simply soften in
the microwave. Place a cup at a time in a bowl
with a slice of bread. Cover with plastic wrap
and cook for 40 seconds on high.
technique. To obtain more juice from
oranges, lemons or limes, prick skin, microwave
30 seconds on high and stand 2 minutes before
cooking. Do not add salt to vegetables
before cooking, as salt draws out the moisture
and causes vegetables to toughen.
||Tasty chicken. To
enhance the color and flavor when roasting
chicken, mix some brown sugar, honey and a
little soy sauce together and brush both sides
of poultry before and during cooking.
||Rice and pasta.
Rice and pasta cook well in small quantities.
Use a large container to prevent boiling over.
||Reheating tea or
coffee. Make sure the cup or mug is
microwave proof, or it will become hot and may
burn your lips.
2003 Living With
Asked Questions & Answers
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